ATLAS (satin) : This is a stiff, glossy material closely woven from silk thread. It is normally crimson in colour, but in the caftans woven for the sultans, blues and greens are also to be found. Most of the royal caftans were made from this material. It is usually plain woven but striped and serrated fabrics were also manufactured.
ÇATMA (silk brocade) : The difference between this type of material and what is known in France as “Velours à Double Hauteur” lies in the fact that the pile of the motifs or design is higher than that of the ground.
SERASER (brocade) : In this type of material the warp is of silk and the woof of either silver or silver gilt thread. On ceremonial occasions in the Ottoman Court seraser robes constituted the most common and most valued of the gifts normally bestowed. The finest type of seraser was woven in workshops attached to the Palace in Istanbul and their manufacture was supervised by a court official known as the Serasercibaşı. The looms producing seraser fabrics were under very strict supervision: great care was taken to prevent imitations; the number of workshops was strictly limited in face of the rapidly growing popularity of this type of cloth, and the material manufactured was given the Treasury stamp.
SERENK : This is a type of silk fabric which first appeared in the second half of the 15th century and in which the motifs were embroidered in yellow silk instead of in gold or silver thread. The diagonal lines in the floral motifs give the impression of embroidery on cloth.
SELİMİYE : This has both warp and woof of silk, with lengthwise stripes and small flowers.The manufacture of this type of material began at the end of the 18th century in workshops in the vicinity of the Ayazma Mosque in Üsküdar. It probably took the name selimiye from the nearby Selimiye Barracks, which had been built during the reign of Selim III.
KEMHA (silk velvet) : This is the name given to a type of fabric in which the warp and the woof are both of silk. The ledgers of the Private Treasury show that until the end of the 15th century Persian and European kemha continued to be in great demand. By the end of the 15th century no less than eight different varieties of kemha were being manufactured in Turkey.
GEZİ : This is a closely-woven watered silk with silk warp and woof. The silk used in the woof is thicker than that used in the warp, and the difference in thickness between the woof and the warp is clearly discernible.The watered effect is obtained by compressing the material between two hot cylinders immediately after weaving.
From the 16th century onwards it was usual for the outdoor garments of the Sultans to be made from gezi.
ÇUHA (broad cloth) : This is a closely-woven, piled material with woollen warp and woof and either self-coloured or natural.
From the middle of the 15th century up to the time of the conquest of Salonica, the finest fabric of this type was woven in Eğin in Eastern Anatolia.
HATAI : This is a stiff material woven from silk thread and klaptan (a type of thread made from a mixture of cotton and silver or silver gilt). The required stiffness is obtained by using raw silk for the warp while the woof is composed of a thread with two strands of silk and one of klaptan . This material is to be found after the middle of the 16th century and was usually employed for the sultan's outdoor caftans.
KADİFE (velvet) : This is a piled material in which both the warp and the woof are of silk. Kadife is not to be found among Turkish materials before the middle of the 15th century.
SOF : This is a type of fabric woven from very finely spun mohair. The woven cloth is first washed and fired in an oven, thus acquiring a very distinctive brilliance.White, red and black were the colours most commonly used but other colours can also be found. This material was used in making garments for the common people as well as caftans for the sultans.
Kaftanlar (Caftans), Fikret Altay, Yapı ve Kredi Bankası Publications, 1979